Couple Salt

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Couple Salt

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Couple of new questions: Me and salt ...?

So I think my tank is ICH. So I ICH drugs or owe little aquarium salt? What will it work better? W 30 gal / neons, platys (one pregnant), rummy nose, guppies, Corys, and pictus. Also, my pictus looks rough. Its long whiskers are confused - one is broken and the other is long, but finally appears fibrous and floppy disks - not so sharp the rest of the mustache. What does this mean? Thanks in advance for the info. Oh, and how long it takes to clear ICH or drugs or salt?

Or going to work, but be careful that you choose, because some of their fish or sensitive to salt or medicine. You should start with half the recommended dose and gradually increase the amount by observing the signs of stress in fish. Also help increase the temperature (a few degrees each hour for the fish can adjust), while dealing with ich, but with the Corys, you may need Search stress heat, because some of them are colder than others. It would be nice to have the temperature up to about 86th tolerate this level, but any increase will be a more effective before. With both treatments, it takes about 14 days, or at least 3-5 days after they no longer see the spots on the fish. Stopping treatment early every fish at risk of reinfection, it is not until the parasites are out of the fish (which are enclosed by a protective cyst) and treatment water begins to kill them. Since you have such a mixture of fish, if you have a spare tank, you may want to consider addressing the sensitive fish (Corys, tetras, and pictus) separate from those that are more tolerant to salt and medicines. Pictus catfish injured you, likely to be trapped in the filter-mail or entry by hitting an object in the tank - the fish has ich, often against scrathc objects (called flashing) to "zero" their bodies to try to eliminate irritation caused by parasites.

salt-tolerant genes and mechanisms of salt-tolerant microbes

The body's ability to survive high salt and low temperatures is mainly due to the accumulation of compatible. solute glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis has been shown to possess three transport systems for glycine betaine: the secondary absorption system and two children opuD shuttle systems protein, Opua and PUC (Bow). BetP secondary transport system is involved in the accumulation of glycine betaine in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Sleator et al. (1999) describes the characterization and disruption of betle, a gene that plays an important role in the uptake of glycine betaine in L. monocytogenes

Marine microbes are known to play a role essential in the global cycle of nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorous, iron, sulfur and trace elements (Karl, 2007). salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the absorption rate of the salt of the earth or water and salt transport through the plant, is to adjust the balance ion cells and osmotic in roots and shoots and regulate leaf development and early senescence (Munns, 2005). However, very little progress have been made in that model analysis of gene expression has been difficult. Most culturable microorganisms sequencing Alteromonadales deep sea are the Gammaproteobacteria. Sequenced the unique characteristics of microbes in deep water is that they all have a high proportion rRNA operon people genome size, and their intergenic regions are larger than average (Lauro and Bartlett, 2008). These properties are characteristic opportunistic bacteria with a lifestyle and a high degree of gene regulation to respond rapidly to changing environments in search of food.

  Osmoregularion in bacteria:

The adaptation of bacteria at concentrations high solute involves the accumulation of intracellular compounds called organic osmolytes. Osmolytes (often called compatible solutes, because they can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations without adversely affecting cells processesm can be taken from the environment or de novo synthesis, and the legislation to counter external osmotic strength, thus preventing water loss from the cell and plasmolysis. Since the permeability water from the plasma membrane is high, imposed imbalances between turgor pressure and the osmolality gradient across the wall bacterial cells are short-lived. Osmoregulation is a fundamental phenomenon developed by bacteria, fungi, plants and animals overcome osmotic stress. The most common strategy in response to hyperosmotic stress is the accumulation of compatible solutes, which protects cells and allows growth. An effective compatible solutes commonly used by bacteria is glycine betaine, trimethyl N-glycine derivatives, which accumulate intracellularly at high concentration, either by synthesis, absorption, or both. Bacteria respond to osmotic upshifts in three overlapping phases: dehydration (loss of some cell water) (phase I), the adjustment of cytoplasmic solvent composition and rehydration (phase II), and cellular remodeling (phase III). Responses to osmotic downshifts are not yet well characterized, but is also likely to continue in three phases: water uptake (phase I), extrusion of water and cosolvents (Phase II), and cytoplasmic cosolvent reaccumulation and cellular remodeling (phase III).

Glycine betaine transport system Sprouts:

Some of the genes of microbes for salinity tolerance and responds to assumptions about the role of these genes. L. monocytogenes can survive a variety of environmental issues, growth has been reported at NaCl concentrations in 10% and high temperatures as low as 20.1 ° C. The body's ability to withstand hostile environments is illustrated by an outbreak of listeriosis that sepsis was linked to salt intake fungi (7.5% NaCl) stored at low temperature (Boscari et al., 2002). The body's ability to survive high salt and low temperatures is mainly due to the accumulation of compatible solute glycine betaine (Boscari et al., 2002). The base Genetic uptake of glycine betaine in another form of bacteria gram, has been extensively studied: Bacillus. subtilis has been shown to have three modes of transport glycine betaine uptake system of secondary opuD children and two shuttle systems proteins, Opua and PUC (Bow). BetP secondary transport system away from Peter et al., Is involved in the accumulation of glycine betaine in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Sleator et al., 1999) describes the characterization and disruption of betle, a gene that plays an important role in the uptake of glycine betaine in L. monocytogenes and exhibits homologies Top of glycine betaine uptake systems of other Gram-positive side. Boscari et al. (2002) eported that the molecular characterization and disruption involved, a gene that plays an important role in Na + affinity of glycine betaine and proline betaine transport rates in S. meliloti. In addition, they showed that the game is constitutively expressed, whereas the activity of paris dependent posttranslational activation high osmolarity and is more likely that the emergency system for the secure transport of betaines osmotic immediately. Many micro-organisms have two or more glycine betaine transport systems. Salmonella typhimurium, for example, has two genetically distinct pathways, lowaffinity a constitutive (Prop) and induced a strong affinity of the osmotic system (Bow), while B. subtilis has three types of transport glycine betaine, OpuD, Opua and OPUCE.

In general, these transport systems can be divided into two groups. The first is the multiple components, the protein binding dependent transport systems belonging to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters prokaryotes and eukaryotes, or traffic ATPases. Members of this family, including B. subtilis and Opua and OPUCE Prou E. coli, couples ATP hydrolysis to the substrate translocation across biological membranes. The second group belongs to a family of school bus involved in the uptake of trimethylammonium compounds. The members of this family, including B. subtilis and C. OpuD BetP glutamicum One component mechanisms so that the driving force for protons couple solute transport through the membrane. glycine betaine transporters have been studied extensively in Molecular gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enteric bacteria soil gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacterium glutamicum. In E. coli and serovar Typhimurium, two transport systems, the proposal and less, are mainly responsible for absorption of glycine betaine. Prop a secondary carrier, functions as a cotransporter and regulated H_ mainly in the activity. Bow is a carrier protein that is dependent on a member of the ABC family is great and regulated at transcription and activity. Jobs above have demonstrated the crucial role of glycine betaine for osmotic stress resistance in a Gram-negative Sinorhizobium meliloti soil, (Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa symbiotic species, and led to investigations of the synthesis of glycine betaine and transportation. Biosynthetic enzymatic oxidation of choline or choline-O-sulfate, glycine betaine, has been well characterized at the molecular level and consists of four genes, betICBA, organized in an operon. In addition to genes encoding a presumed regulatory protein (Beti), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (Betbaba) and choline dehydrogenase (beta), enzymes also found in E. coli, S. meliloti, unlike other bacteria, has an additional gene (BETC), which encodes a choline sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of choline-O-sulfate and to a lesser extent, Phosphorylcholine on the hill.

In B. subtilis, three high-affinity glycine betaine effective carriers were characterized to date. Two systems, Opua and OPUCE are members of the superfamily of ABC transporters and OpuD, is a secondary carrier. OPUCE Opua and present identity protein transporter binding periplasmic E. Prou coli, but as a Gram, B. subtilis is not the periplasm, and binding proteins are anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane to avoid losses in the surrounding environment. Whereas OPUCE can carry a variety of solutes compatible, such as glycine betaine, choline, ectoine, and carnitine OpuD Opua and have a restricted substrate specificity for glycine betaine. With regard to the osmotic adjustment, C. glutamicum is another study gram-positive soil bacteria as well. In this organism, two carriers secondary to the absorption of glycine betaine have been characterized: the high affinity Na +-glycine betaine uptake system with and TVET BetP, who prefers Ectoin glycine betaine. Both systems are governed by the external osmolarity on the level of activity. BetP and TVET are closely linked with each other and other companies to prokaryotes compatible solutes, such as transporter of glycine B. subtilis betaine OpuD, the carrier of choline and carnitine carrier CAIT E. Bett coli, glycine betaine carrier Betla Listeria monocytogenes, and the alleged BetP proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Haemophilus influenzae.


About the Author

Mitali Dhiman, Research Scholar, Dr.S.S.Mishra, Principal Scientist CIFRI-ICAR)

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